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प्रकृती राई मिस भुटान युएसए

प्रकृती राई मिस भुटान युएसए

विकासराज न्यौपाने, टेक्सास, अमेरिका, असार ६ print

पहिलो पटक अमेरिकामा सम्पन्न मिस भुटान युएसएको ताज प्रकृती राईले हात पारेकी छन्।
टेक्सासको ह्युस्टनमा तीन दिनसम्म चलेको हिमालयन फेस्टिबलको मुख्य आकर्षणको रुपमा रहेको मिस भुटान युएसएको उपाधि म्यासाच्युसेट्स राज्यमा बस्दै आएकी राईले जितेकी हुन्। भुटानीज अमेरिकन एशोसियसन अफ ह्युस्टनको आयोजनामा भएको हिमालयन फेस्टिबलमा अमेरिकाका बिभिन्न राज्यमा रहेका नेपाली भाषी भुटानीहरुको सहभागीता थियो।
पूर्व मिस नेपाल माल्विका सुब्बाले कोरियोग्राफी गरेको मिस भुटान युएसएमा प्रकृती राईले मिस भुटानका साथै मिस पर्सानालिटीको पनि उपाधी हात पारेकी छन्।
प्रतियोगितामा सीता भुजेल फस्ट रनरअपका साथै मिस पपुलरको र धनवाजन मगरले सेकेण्ड रनर अपको उपाधी हात पारेका छन्।
तीन दिने फेस्टिबलमा युवाहरुलाई प्रोत्साहन गर्ने उद्धेश्यका साथ बिभिन्न सांस्कृतीक तथा खेलकुद कार्यक्रमहरुलाई पनि समेटिएको मुख्य आयोजक मध्येका एक राजन गिरीले जानकारी दिए।
युवाहरुबिच भएको फुटबल खेलमा डि ९ डि क्लब प्रथम भएको थियो भने नृत्य तर्फ मनिता गुरुङ, न्युयोर्कले प्रथम पुरस्कार हात पारेकी थिइन्।
गायनतर्फ रुपेश राईले प्रथम पुरस्कार हात पारेका थिए भने सर्ट मुभितर्फ भुटानी क्रियटिभ कनेक्सनले पहिलो पुरस्कार हात पारेको थियो ।
महोत्सवमा कलाकारहरु राजेश पायल राई, प्रेमराजा महत, नलिना चित्रकार, जगदिश समाल, शान्ति भण्डारी, लगायतका स्थानीय कलाकारहरुले जोडदार प्रस्तुती दिएका थिए।
मिस भुटान युएसए कार्यक्रममा बिप्लव प्रतिक, नलिना चित्रकार, प्रेमराजा महत,सुमित सिग्देल, दिपक गजमेर र मदन पाठकले निर्णायक थिए।

प्रकाशित मिति: शुक्रबार, आषाढ ६, २०७१ ०७:३६:४२

 

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Camp Pictures by cibc.com

Language Proof if you are 18-54 years of age

Select one of the following types of proof to submit with your application:

  1. Results of a CIC-approved third-party test at the equivalent of Canadian Language Benchmark (CLB/NCLC)[Note 1] level 4 or higher in speaking and listening skills done previously for immigration purposes (even expired) or done specifically for citizenship purposes only. Test results from the following list are acceptable:
    • Canadian English Language Proficiency Index Program General test (CELPIP-G), (not the academic version)  You must have achieved a score of:
      • 2H or higher (3L, 3H, 4L, 4H, 5 or 6) in speaking and listening; or
      • CELPIP-General LS – a two-skills (listening and speaking) version of the CELPIP general test You must have achieved a score of:2H or higher (3L, 3H, 4L, 4H, 5 or 6) in listening and speaking; or
    • International English Language Testing System (IELTS), general training, not the academic version You must have achieved a score of:
      • 4.0 or higher in speaking, and
      • 4.5 or higher in listening.  (If the test was done before November 28, 2008, we will accept a 4 or higher); or
    • Test d’Évaluation de Français (TEF)  You must have achievied a score of :
      • B1 or higher (B2, C1 or C2) in listening and speaking; or
    • Test d’Évaluation du Français adapté au Québec (TEFAQ) or TEF épreuves orales.  You must have achieved  a score of:
      • B1 or higher (B2, C1 or C2)

      The following list of proof will be accepted only if used for Quebec immigration purposes in the past:

      • DALF (Diplôme approfondi de langue française) – All results or
      • DELF (Diplôme d’études en langue française) – B1 or higher or
      • TCF (Test de connaissance du français) – B1 or higher or
      • TCFQ (Test de connaissance du français pour le Québec) – B1 or higher
  2. Proof of completion of secondary or post-secondary education in French or English includes:
    • A diploma or transcripts from a secondary or post-secondary school indicating the successful completion of a program, in Canada or abroad. or
    • A diploma or certificate from a secondary or post-secondary school indicating successful graduation, in Canada or abroad.

    Note:You must have successfully finished a secondary or post-secondary program in English or French. A single course done in English or French does not meet the requirement.  The diploma, certificate or transcript should be in English or French.  The document must clearly show that the program was completed with English or French as the language of instruction.  If the original document is not in English or French then you must also include a letter in English or French from the institution indicating that the language of instruction was in English or French along with a translation of the original document.

  3. Proof of achieving Canadian Language Benchmark/Niveau de competence linguistique canadien(CLB/NCLC) level 4 or higher in speaking and listening skills through certain government-funded language training programs are:
    • For Manitoba: Progress report from Manitoba government issued since January 2009. Ensure your report indicates speaking and listening skills are at least at “completing CLB/NCLC level 4” or higher.
    • For Quebec: Bulletins by the Ministère de l’immigration et Communautés culturelles Québec (MICC)

      Version issued since June 2001. Ensure that your most recent assessment in “ interaction orale” is at least level 4 (Échelle québécoise); or

      Version issued since October 2012:

      • 1.  Bulletin showing results in “interaction orale”.  Ensure that your most recent assessment in “interaction orale” is at least level 4 (Échelle québécoise); or
      • 2. Bulletin issued since October 16th, 2012 showing results in “interaction orale” OR showing results in both “comprehension orale” and “production orale”only.  Usually, these start with the course code FIA Ensure that your most recent assessment in “interaction orale” OR both “comprehension orale” and “production orale” is at least level 4 (Échelle québécoise)
      • NOTE:  Bulletin with results from online FEL (Francisation en ligne) classes are not acceptable for citizenship purposes, e.g. these usually have a course code B or FEL.
    • For British Columbia (BC):
      • If you received British Columbia’s English Language Services for Adults (ELSA) training in 2008 and 2009, an ELSA certificate confirming language level CLB 4 or higher.
      • If you received British Columbia’s English Language Services for Adults (ELSA) training since 2010, an ELSA report card or an ELSA certificate confirming language level CLB 4 or higher
    • For Ontario:  Ontario Provincial Language Training Certificate issued by the Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration (MCI) funded language training providers (school boards) in or afterDecember 2013.  Ensure your Ontario MCI Adult Non-Credit language training program certificate indicates achievement of level CLB/NCLC 4 or higher, in speaking and listening.  These certificates must be for:
      • English as a Second Language (ESL)/Anglais Langue Seconde (ALS)
      • French as a Second Language (FSL)/Français Langue Seconde (FLS)
      • Citizenship and Language Training (CL)/Instruction civique et enseignement de la langue (ICEL)
    • Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC or CLIC): Check the box if you successfully completed the course at CLB4/NCLC 4 or higher from January 2008 to October 31, 2012 and provide a copy of the certificate if available. If you successfully completed the LINC or CLIC course since November 1st, 2012, a certificate will be provided to you. A copy of this certificate is required. Note that completion of LINC or CLIC before 2008 does not qualify for proof of language ability.

If you are deaf, and can provide one of the upfront proofs of language ability for citizenship (described in 1 to 3 above), please do so.  If you are not able to provide such evidence, you must provide other supporting documents to assist decision makers in understanding the basis of your claim.  The accepted supporting evidence is an audiogram issued by a Canadian audiologist, with a letter issued by the same audiologist attesting that you are deaf and have severe to profound hearing loss, with little or no residual hearing, including an explanation as to whether, and to what extent this impacts your ability to listen and/or speak.

Note: If you do not have acceptable language proof to submit with your application or do not have the required language level, you may choose to take an acceptable third-party test by enrolling in a government-funded language program that would provide acceptable certification. Certificates from these government funded language training programs cannot be used as proof of education for your citizenship application (seeSection 4 Education Records)

 

If you have a disorder, disability or condition that is cognitive, psychiatric or psychological in nature which prevents you from submitting upfront proof of language ability for citizenship, you must provide supporting documentary evidence to assist decision makers in understanding the basis of your claim.

[1] The Canadian Language Benchmark/Niveau de compétence linguistique canadien is the national standard used in Canada for describing, measuring and recognizing the English language proficiency of adult immigrants and prospective immigrants for living and working in Canada. It provides a descriptive scale of communicative proficiency in English or French as a second language, expressed as benchmarks or reference points. [back to note 1]

CLB/NCLC 4 is considered “Basic Proficiency” and means that an individual being tested who “meets” CLB 4:

  • take part in short, routine conversations about everyday topics
  • understand simple instructions and directions
  • use basic grammar, including simple structures and tenses in oral communication
  • use vocabulary that is adequate for routine oral communication

Format: Clear and legible photocopy. Must be in English or French. No translations accepted except for foreign diplomas, certificates or transcripts (see note above in section 2).

3. Biographical page of Passport(s)/Travel Document(s)

The biographical page means the page where it has your name, photo, passport/travel document no., issue date and expiration date.

Provide photocopies of the biographical pages of all passports and/or travel documents (valid and cancelled) for the relevant four (4) year period immediately preceding the date of your application,

Also, provide photocopies of any renewal pages of the passport(s)/travel document(s).

Note: If any of these documents are no longer in your possession please explain why.

Format: Clear and legible photocopy

4. Education Records

Provide photocopies of all your official education records  if you attended an educational institution  in the four (4) years immediately before the date of your application. Official education records are:

  • report cards; or
  • transcripts; or
  • attendance records

The education records must cover each calendar year, if applicable.  It is sufficient to submit one official education document per calendar year of schooling during the relevant four (4) year period. Note: You are not required to submit proof of attendance at English/French as a second language training programs.

In addition, provide photocopies of official education records for all children in Canada or abroad who were under the age of 18 in the last four (4) years immediately before the date of your application even if you are not applying for Canadian citizenship on their behalf.  You must also provide documents for any children who are already Canadian citizens, if applicable.  

Note: Student identification cards and letters from institutions, teachers, principals are not accepted as official education records. For example, an official transcript from an educational institution would satisfy this requirement. A letter from an institution is only acceptable in the following two circumstances:

  1. Child has recently enrolled in school and a report card has not yet been issued
  2. Child is being homeschooled (see below)

Format: Clear and legible photocopy

source: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/information/applications/guides/CIT0002ETOC.asp#language

एल मोटर चालक लाईसनश परीक्षा तयारी गर्न का लागि केही जानकारी Links for the Driving Knowledge Test

Links for the Driving Knowledge Test

 एल मोटर चालक लाईसनश परीक्षा तयारी गर्न का लागि केही जानकारी

Get your L

http://www.icbc.com/driver-licensing/new-drivers/get-l

 

new drivers

http://www.icbc.com/driver-licensing/new-drivers/get-l

 

Driver Classes

http://www.icbc.com/driver-licensing/types-licences/licence-classes

 

1)      Signs

http://apps.icbc.com/licensing/opkt/sign/index.html

2) ICBC’s Full Practice Test ( तलको लिंकमा click गर्नुस र परीक्षाको तयारी गर्नुस )

 

http://apps.icbc.com/licensing/opkt/opkt2013/index.html

 

Richmond Library Practice Test, Passenger Vehicle, Class 5

http://www.yourlibrary.ca/driving/

 

ICBC licensing mobile practice knowledge test

By ICBC         

मोबाइल डाउन लोड गर्न क लागि तलको लिंकमा click गर्नुस :

https://itunes.apple.com/ca/app/icbc-licensing-mobile-practice/id438491857?mt=8&ign-mpt=uo%3D4

 

5) Driving Manual in Hindi (Not from BC or Canada)

http://www.sknfoundation.org/projects_pdf/Hindi%20Drivers%20Manual%20Final.pdf

अमेरिकामा भुटानी शरणार्थी युवकद्वारा आत्महत्या

अमेरिकाको म्यारिल्याण्ड राज्यको बाल्टिमोरमा नेपालबाट पुनर्स्थापनाको लागि अमेरिका ल्याइएका एक युवकले आत्महत्या गरेका छन्।

पारिवारिक स्रोतका अनुसार २१ बर्षीय चन्द्र क्षेत्री सोमबार घर छाडी हिँडेका थिए। परिवारलाई कुनै पनि शंका मनमा नरहेको र काममा सधैको जस्तै हिँडेको भन्ने ठानेको थियो। सोमबार काममा हिँडेका उनी मंगलबार बेलुकासम्म पनि घर नफर्किएपछि प्रहरीलाई मंगलबार साँझ ८ बजे परिवारले खबर गरेको थियो। करिब बुधबार १० बजे प्रहरीले उनी चढेको गाडी रुख नजिकै लुकाएर राखिएको अवस्थामा भेटिएको खबर गरेको थियो।

प्रहरीले ११ बजे त्यही दिन २१ बर्षीय चन्द्र क्षेत्रीले सानो रुखमा घाँटीमा पासो लगाई आत्महत्या गरेको पुष्टि भएको जानकारी परिवारलाई दिएको थियो। क्षेत्रीले प्रयोग गरेको डोरी वालमार्टबाट किनेर लगेको बुझिएको छ। १९९२ मा भुटानको गोम्तु भन्ने ठाउँमा जन्मेका क्षेत्री नोवेम्बर २१, २००९ देखि बाल्टिमोरमा बस्दै आएका थिए भने उनका बुबाआमा खेम क्षेत्री र सुनिता क्षेत्री, भाइ कृष्ण तथा बहिनी मीना साथमै बस्थे। क्षेत्रीको पार्थिव शरीरको दाहसंस्कार गरिसकिएको छ।

source :

विजय थापा भर्जिनिया, मंसिर २०

http://www.setopati.com

Parents not convinced officers had no choice in shooting son

By Lethbridge Herald on July 26, 2013.

Jasmaya Puri wipes away a tear while sitting alongside her husband Dilli Friday morning as their family talks with a reporter about their son Deu Raj, who was killed in an officer-involved shooting last July. Herald photo by Ian MartensJasmaya Puri wipes away a tear while sitting alongside her husband Dilli Friday morning as their family talks with a reporter about their son Deu Raj, who was killed in an officer-involved shooting last July. Herald photo by Ian Martens

Katie May
LETHBRIDGE HERALD
kmay@lethbridgeherald.com
Deu Raj Puri isn’t smiling. He’s wearing a green polo shirt, broad shoulders squared toward the camera in an enduring non-pose, his stern gaze locked on the lens.
He never did like having his photo taken.
But the day he died, he relented. He seemed to know that day would be his last, and even told his family he wouldn’t live much longer.
“He said that ‘I’m going to die tonight or today,’ and the same thing happened at night-time,” his older brother Naresh said. “I was thinking that he was joking. He was not serious, right?”
The photo, framed and draped with green ribbon, hangs on the Puri family’s living room wall. It’s one of the only photos they have to remember their 26-year-old son and brother, taken on July 15, 2012 — a day they’re trying to forget.
His parents, Dilli and Jasmaya, along with their four sons and three daughters, have so many unanswered questions about the night Deu Raj died. An investigation by the Alberta Serious Incident Response Team (ASIRT) found two Lethbridge police officers were justified when they fired a total of seven gun shots at Deu Raj, hitting him five times from less than 10 feet away, ultimately killing him. Investigators found the officers had reason to believe Deu Raj was going to hurt them.
But no matter how they look at it, the Puri family isn’t convinced officers had no choice but to shoot their son.
Investigators said Deu Raj had been threatening others with a knife, but his family believes he was a danger only to himself, and that he had been trying to co-operate with police in a frenzied atmosphere made lethal by miscommunication.
Just before 11 p.m. that night, Deu Raj was drunk, cutting his arm with a vegetable knife, when Naresh decided to call 911.
“I was thinking that the police can come, they can catch him and they can put him in a rehab centre and other places so that he can improve his life. I was thinking about that, but it happened (so quickly),” Naresh said. “That was my great mistake, to call the police.”
In the eight months since they arrived in Lethbridge from a Nepalese refugee camp, the family had called police to their westside home four times — each time because Deu Raj was threatening to kill himself.
The third of five Puri sons, Deu Raj lived in the refugee camp since he was six years old, when the family fled their home in the South Asian Kingdom of Bhutan to escape persecution. In camp, he was content, his parents said. He loved to cook and was eager to whip up some spicy meat curry dishes for his family — served with a side of laughter as he entertained with his impressions of famous comedians. He went to school with his siblings, but unlike them, he struggled to learn English. He focused instead on working to earn money for the family. He went to Kathmandu to work in the construction industry and travelled to India for a brief stint as a security guard, always sending money back to his parents. When the family got ready to come to Canada, Deu Raj was excited. He looked forward to having a stable, peaceful place to live, his parents said.
“Whatever he expected that he would see here didn’t happen,” said his mother, Jasmaya, through a translator.
“If we were there (in camp) we would not have lost our son, so we regret to come here.”
His language barrier was Deu Raj’s greatest hurdle to finding gainful employment, his family said. And with no job and no way to communicate outside of his Bhutanese community, Deu Raj became idle. He took courses in English as a second language and eventually found seasonal farm work, but he also started drinking.
“When he’s drunk, his mind is totally changed. The way of thinking is changed,” said Naresh, who added he believed his brother needed help for depression and that he had relayed his concerns to police and immigration services several times. On one of those occasions, police officers even took Deu Raj to the hospital.
But on the night Deu Raj died, police didn’t ask the family what was going on before they entered the house, Naresh said. They told his English-speaking brothers to stay outside, and within seconds, the brothers heard gunshots.
“The way they behaved was totally different than the (other officers). They pushed us from the room and they didn’t say anything. They just directly entered the home and they shoot the gun within seconds. I can’t believe that. I was totally unsatisfied with the police,” said Naresh, who said he wished police would’ve subdued his brother another, non-fatal, way.
The officers rushed into the house, shone a flashlight in Deu Raj’s eyes and shouted at him to drop his knife. Deu Raj then wobbled to his feet and raised his arms over his head. But he didn’t understand that he had to put down the knife, his family said. Instead, they said, he was likely putting his hands up to surrender and walked toward them because he anticipated going with them, as he had four times before.
Deu Raj had been shot five times, and his parents, younger sister and three-year-old nephew — huddled in a stairwell overlooking the tiny living room — saw the whole thing.
“They are going to kill all of us. Maybe they brought us here to kill,” his father Dilli thought at the time, expressing his feelings with the help of a translator.
After that night, Dilli and Jasmaya never went back to that house. They and their children now live in a different neighbourhood, but they still think about Deu Raj constantly and even dream about him at night.
Despite Deu Raj’s many threats, his family doesn’t believe he actually wanted to die, just that he needed help. Now, they hope no one else will have to go through what they’ve been through.
“From hereafter we wish that nothing like this will happen to anybody’s sons. And the community, I hope it will be nice for everybody,” his mother said.
A provincial fatality inquiry into Deu Raj’s death is expected to begin within a year. When the inquiry is finished, the presiding judge may make recommendations about how such situations should be handled in the future.
But the Puri family doesn’t know what good the inquiry will do them. Jasmaya said the loss of her son is like a scar that will remain in her heart for the rest of her life.
“I cannot distinguish what is day and what is night. I have no idea what is coming,” she said.

A Brief History of the Bhutanese Refugee Crisis

Bhutan is a nation made up of several ethnic groups. One of these is the Lhotshampa, people of Nepali origin, who began to settle in the south of the country in the late 19th century.

In the 1980s it emerged that Lhotshampas were being seen as a threat to the political order.

When a string of measures were passed that discriminated against their group, the Lhotshampa organised a series of public demonstrations for which the participants were branded as “anti-nationals”.

Several thousands of Southern Bhutanese were imprisoned, and more than 2000 tortured, according to Amnesty International. Very few of them were formally charged. Thousands fled to India and Nepal.

By the end of 1992, there were more than 80,000 living in UNHCR camps in south eastern Nepal.

Below, Michael Hutt, Professor of Nepali and Himalayan Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, gives a brief outline to the events that led to the refugee crisis.

 


Ethnic diversity

Like most modern nations, Bhutan’s 650,000 people consist of several ethnic groups. The Ngalongs of the western mountains and the central Bhutanese with whom they have intermarried form the elite, but they constitute a minority alongside the more numerous Sharchhops (‘easterners’) and the Lhotshampas (‘southerners’ or ‘Nepali-speaking Bhutanese’). Almost all of the refugees come from this last group, which before the crisis began was reckoned to constitute between one third and one half of the total population.

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Settlement of the Southern Bhutanese

During the late 19th Century, contractors working for the Bhutanese government began to organise the settlement of Nepali-speaking people in uninhabited areas of southern Bhutan, in order to open those areas up for cultivation. The south soon became the country’s main supplier of food. By 1930, according to British colonial officials, much of the south was under cultivation by a population of Nepali origin that amounted to some 60,000 people.

With an annual growth rate of between 2 and 3% and continued immigration up to 1958, this population grew to its 1988 proportions. Many refugees claim that their ancestors came to Bhutan from eastern Nepal between 1890 and 1920, and many possess documents that support this claim.

In 1958, Bhutan passed its first citizenship act and the entire Southern Bhutanese population, which had until then had very little security in Bhutan, was granted full citizenship. Nationwide programmes of development and modernization commenced in 1961, and the economic importance of the south continued to grow as major hydro-electric power projects were established. However, southerners did not own land or settle permanently to the north of a certain latitude, and there was very little interaction between the northern and southern populations until the 1960s.

During the 1960s and 1970s, with the development of education, social services and the economy, many Southern Bhutanese rose to occupy influential positions in the bureaucracy.

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Government repression of the Southern Bhutanese

During the 1980s, the Southern Bhutanese came to be seen as a threat to the political order. A new citizenship act passed in 1985 became the basis for a so-called census exercise in southern districts, in which every member of the southern population had to produce documentary evidence of legal residence in 1958, or else risk being declared a non-national.

In 1989, all Bhutanese became liable to a fine or imprisonment if they ventured out in anything other than northern traditional costume, and the Nepali language was removed from the school curriculum.

Public demonstrations against these and other new policies took place in all southern districts in late 1990, and all those who took part were branded ‘anti-nationals’ by the government.

Several thousand Southern Bhutanese were imprisoned for many months in primitive conditions; more than two thousand were tortured during their imprisonment and very few were formally charged or stood trial. Many of those who were subsequently released in amnesties declared by the King of Bhutan found that their houses had been demolished and their families had fled the kingdom.

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Expulsion of the Southern Bhutanese

The first refugees fled to neighbouring India, but were not permitted to set up permanent camps there and had to move to eastern Nepal. Repressive measures continued against suspected dissidents and their families, and indeed against Southern Bhutanese in general, during 1991 and 1992. As more and more people had their citizenship revoked in the successive annual censuses, a trickle of refugees into Nepal during 1991 turned into a flow of up to 600 per day in mid-1992.

By the end of that year, some 80,000 were sheltering in UNHCR-administered camps in Nepal’s two south-eastern districts. The numbers have since swelled by some 20,000 more. Some of these are later arrivals, but most are children born in the camps.

Of the estimated 100,000 Southern Bhutanese who lost their homes, lands, livelihoods and country between 1990 and 1993, not a single person has yet been allowed home. Although the Bhutanese government coerced thousands into signing what it claims were ‘voluntary migration’ certificates, it does tacitly admit that the camps contain some bona-fide citizens who were ejected from Bhutan against their will.

The governments of Nepal and Bhutan have met sixteen times at ministerial level to discuss a resolution to the crisis, with no concrete results. Bhutan has resisted Nepal’s calls for international engagement in the talks. India has maintained throughout that this is a bi-lateral issue between the two governments.

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Continuing repression within Bhutan

In 1998 the Bhutanese government began a process of resettling landless people from northern Bhutan onto the lands owned and previously farmed by the refugees. In the same year, 219 relatives of so-called ‘anti-nationals’ (refugee activists) were dismissed from government service. Southern Bhutanese have continued to face dismissal from government service since that time, but one by one.

Those Southern Bhutanese remaining in Bhutan have continued to face severe and sustained discrimination amounting to persecution.

Annual census activities in the south continue to reclassify Southern Bhutanese into different categories, from F1 (full Bhutanese) to F7 (non-Bhutanese), including placing members of the same family in different categories.

Since 1991, Southern Bhutanese have been required to obtain a ‘No Objection Certificate’ to state that neither they nor their relatives were involved in the democracy movement and other ‘anti-national’ activities. This certificate is very difficult to obtain, but is needed to access schools and other government services, as well as to work with the government or gain a business licence, including for selling cash crops.

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Verification exercise

Finally, in 2000, under increasing pressure from the international community to find a solution, Bhutan and Nepal agreed to commence a pilot screening of the refugees in one of the camps, to establish their status. In 2001, the 12,173 inhabitants of Khudunabari camp (about one eighth of the total population in the refugee camps) were screened by the joint Bhutanese-Nepalese verification team. No monitoring by UNHCR or any independent third party was allowed.

The results of the process were announced in late 2003: 75% of those screened were found to be eligible to return to Bhutan. On December 22, the Bhutanese leader of the verification team reported the conditions of return to the assembled refugees.

  • Category 1 (2.5% people) may return to Bhutan as citizens, but not to their original houses and lands
  • Category 2 (70.5%) will have to reapply for citizenship under the challenging terms of the 1985 Citizenship Act after a probationary period of two years spent in a closed camp in Bhutan.
  • Category 4 (2.8% people) includes relatives of those to be charged with criminal acts. They will be detained in a designated camp.
  • Category 3 (24.2%) termed as Non-Bhutanese have their right to appeal the results of the verification unilaterally cancelled.

The refugees expressed their frustration and in the ensuing scuffle, Bhutanese members of the verification team were injured. They returned to Bhutan and the process leading to any repatriation has since stalled.

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The current situation

In 2006 King Jigme Singye Wangchuk abdicated in favour of his son, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuk. It is not known what, if any, impact this will have on the situation. The Bhutanese refugees remain in limbo, their future still unclear. Those in the camps continue to wait for a solution that might consist of a return to Bhutan, third country resettlement or local integration or an unknown mixture of all three. Violence in the camps, between those favouring third country resettlement and those who insist on unconditional repatriation, is an increasingly serious problem.

An estimated 35,000 exist outside of the camps, in Nepal or in India, without the protection of UNHCR or any status in the countries where they live. Increasing numbers have made the difficult journey to third countries to claim asylum.

Those Southern Bhutanese who remain in Bhutan also face an uncertain future, with continuing discrimination and the possibility of being excluded from the emerging democratic process offered in the new constitution.

Source: http://www.photovoice.org/bhutan/index.php?id=3